TEXT: Anatomy & Physiology, 6th edition by Kenneth Saladin


Lecture Syllabus
Text: Human Anatomy and Physiology, First edition by Erin C. Amerman Pearson (ISBN: 9781323169308)


Printable PDF Ver. SCB-203 Syllabus


Lect. #

Lecture Topic

Chapters in Amerman


Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology   

Ch. 1 (1-11, 21-30)


Introduction to Chemistry  

Ch. 2 (31-36)


Reactions and Ionic Bonding

Ch. 2 (36-37, 41-45)


Covalent and Hydrogen Bonding

Ch. 2 (37-41)


Acids, Bases, and Salts

Ch. 2 (47-50)


LECTURE QUIZ 1; Introduction to Biochemistry          

Ch. 2 (45-46, 50-52, 62)


Lipids and Proteins

Ch. 2 (52-58, 62-63)


Nucleic Acids and Heredity          

Ch. 2 (58-61, 63-67) Ch. 3 (111)


Protein Synthesis   

Ch. 3 (102-109)


The Cell        

Ch. 3 (68-86)


Cell Physiology

Ch. 3 (87-102)   


LECTURE QUIZ 2; Epithelial Tissue

Ch. 4 (123-136)


Connective Tissue and Organs

Ch. 4 (137-146, 152-154)


Introduction to the Integumentary System

Ch. 5 (160-173)


Skin Derivatives and Pathology   

Ch. 5 (173-182) and Ch. 5


LECTURE QUIZ 3; Skeletal Organization

Ch. 6 (183-201), Ch. 4 (144-145)


Skeletal Physiology and Joints

Ch. 6 (201-209), Ch. 8 (257-281)



Lectures 1-17


Muscular Organization      

Ch. 10 (339-348), Ch. 4 (146-149)


Myophysiology and Neural Control         

Ch. 10 (348-363)


Muscles and Body Movements

Ch. 10 (363-373), Ch. 9 (290-291)



Ch. 9 and Ch. 10


LECTURE QUIZ 4; Components of Blood and Function

Ch. 19 (723-736), Ch. 4 (145-146)


Blood Types and Clotting  

Ch. 19 (736-751)


Blood Pathology

Ch. 19 (731, 733, 747)


Structure of the Heart and the Conduction System.  

Ch. 17 (631-650), Ch. 4 (146-149)


The Electrocardiogram and the Cardiac Cycle

Ch. 17 (650-660)


Control of Cardiac Function and Cardiopathology


Ch. 17 (660-668) and Ch. 17


LECTURE QUIZ 5; Circulation

Ch. 18 (669-674), Ch. 27 (1072- 1075, 1082)


Circulatory Physiology

Ch. 18 (674-694)


Structure and Mechanics of Respiration

Ch. 21 (799-814)


Physiology and Chemistry of Respiration

Ch. 21 (814-834)


Regulation of Respiration and Respiratory Disorders

Ch. 21 (835-845) and Ch. 21


LECTURE QUIZ 6; The Lymphatic System       

Ch. 20 (752-760)


Immunity (Part I)

Ch. 20 (760-777)


Immunity (Part II)

Ch. 20 (777-798)


LECTURE FINAL EXAM (during finals week)

Lectures 19-36


The laboratory syllabus is included in the laboratory manual package if purchased from the college book store. All syllabi may be found on the Department Web Site (, A&P Web Site ( and the E-312 Study Hall Web Site (







Lecture 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology..
a. How to Succeed in your Anatomy and Physiology Course.
b. Define physiology, cytology, anatomy, histology and pathology.
c. Determine the relationship between structure and function.
d. Compare the levels of structural organization within the human body and define a cell, tissue, organ, organ system and organism.
e.  List the characteristics of living things.
f. Explain why homeostasis is a state, which results in normal body activities and why the inability to achieve homeostasis is a condition, which leads to malfunction and related disorders. Give examples of negative and positive feedback mechanisms.
Lecture 2: Introduction to Chemistry.
a. Define energy and matter.
b. Explain using diagrams the Bohr model of the atom of the most commonly elements found in the human body.  Define proton, electron and neutron.
c. Explain atomic number, atomic mass, isotope and the organization of the periodic table.
d. Describe the distribution of electrons into energy levels and the octet rule.
Lecture 3: Chemical reactions and ionic bonding.
a. Define a chemical reaction as a function of electrons in incomplete energy levels.
b. Describe chemical and structural formulas, valence electrons and chemical equations.
c. Discuss ionic bond formation in a molecule such as NaCI.
d. Explain anions, cations, ionic compounds, dissociation and electrolytes.
e. Define a chemical bond as a force of attraction among atoms in compounds or molecules.
Lecture 4: Covalent and Hydrogen Bonding and Chemical Reactions.    
a. Describe using examples the sharing of outer energy level electrons to form covalent bonds.
b. Define hydrogen bonding and its functions.
c. Explain using examples of biologically important compounds, molecules and free radicals.
d. Identify and compare each of the four types of chemical reactions.
e. Define the type of energy involved when chemical bonds are created or broken.
Lecture 5: Acids, Bases and Salts.
a. List and compare the properties of acids, bases and salts.
b. Define pH as a degree of alkalinity or acidity of a solution.
c. Describe the role of buffer systems as a homeostatic method to maintain the pH of a body fluids.
Lecture 6: Introduction to organic chemistry and biochemistry.
a. QUIZ 1 (Lectures 1-5).
  1. Define and distinguish between inorganic and organic compounds.  Discuss water and salts as inorganic compounds that are essential to life.
c. Describe the chemical characteristics and functional side groups of hydrocarbons.
d. Discuss the structure and importance of carbohydrates.  Compare and contrast mono, di- and polysaccharides.
e. Define polymers and isomers using hexoses as examples.
f. Differentiate between dehydration and hydrolysis reactions of organic molecules.
Lecture 7: Lipids and Proteins.
a. Contrast the chemical structure and functions of neutral fats, phospholipids and steroids.
b. Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
c. Emphasize the importance of lipids as structural, functional and energy storage molecules.
d. Describe the chemistry of proteins.
e. Emphasize the specific three-dimensional shape of proteins that allow them to function as structural and functional molecules.
f. Define and describe the role of enzymes as organic catalysts.
Lecture 8: Nucleic Acids and Heredity.
a. Define and describe DNA and RNA as polymers of nucleotides.
b. Compare and contrast the structure of DNA and RNA.
c. Define the role of DNA in heredity and protein synthesis.
d. Discuss the mechanism and importance of DNA replication.
e. Define a gene.
f. Describe ATP as an energy storage nucleotide.
Lecture 9: Protein Synthesis.
a. Describe the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis.
b. Describe the function of RNA (mRNA, tRNA and rRNA) in protein synthesis.
Lecture 10: Metabolism and Cell structure.
a. Define and list the parts of a generalized cell.
b. Describe the molecular organization of the cell membrane.
c. List the factors related to the semi-permeability of the cell membrane discussing channels and pumps.
d. Define diffusion, osmosis, filtration, active transport and vesicular transport (endocytosis and exocytosis).
e. Explain how the unequal charge distribution results in a transmembrane potential.
Lecture 11: Cell Physiology.
a. Describe the structure and function of the nucleus.
b. Describe the functions of the cytoplasm.
c. Describe the structure and functions of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum.
d. Define the function of ribosomes.
e. Describe the structure and functions of the Golgi apparatus.
f. Describe the function of the mitochondria as the “powerhouse of the cell”.
g. Explain why a lysosomes are called a “suicide packets”.
h. Describe the structure and function of centrioles in cellular reproduction.
i. Describe the structure and function of the cytoskeleton.
Lecture 12: Tissues and Organs.
a. QUIZ 2 (Lectures 6-11).
b. Review the definitions of a tissue and an organ.
c. Classify tissues of the body into the four major types.
d. Compare the distinguishing characteristics of the different types of epithelial tissue.
e. Compare the cell shape and the layering arrangements of epithelial tissue.
f. Describe cell adhesion molecules and the basal lamina as intercellular connections.
g. Define a gland.
h. Distinguish between exocrine and endocrine glands.

Lecture 13: Connective Tissue and Membranes.
a. Describe the distinguishing characteristics of connective tissue.
b. Describe the ground substance, fibers, matrix and the cells that comprise connective tissue.
c. Contrast the different kinds and functions of connective tissues.
d. Define a membrane as an organ.
e. List the location, composition and the function of mucous, serous, synovial, and cutaneous membranes.
Lecture 14: The integumentary System.
a. List the functions of the integumentary system.
b. Define the skin as an organ and a component of the integumentary system.
c. Explain how the skin is structurally divided into epidermal, dermal, and subcutaneous regions.
d. List the structural layers of the epidermis and describe their functions.
e. Discuss the keratinization of the epidermis.
f. Discuss skin color, freckles and tanning.
g. Explain the composition and functions of the dermis.
h. Contrast the structure and function of the papillary and reticular layers of the dermis.
i. Describe the structure and function of the subcutaneous (hypodermis) layer.
j. Classify first, second, and third degree burns.
Lecture 15: Skin Derivatives and Pathology.
a. Compare and contrast the structure and function of epidermal derivatives such as hair, glands (sebaceous, sudoriferous and ceruminous) and nails.
b. Describe the role of the skin in the maintenance of normal body temperature.
c. Explain how the skin functions as an excretory organ and how it repairs itself.
d. Discuss the role of the skin in protecting against disease and desiccation.
e. Explain the effects of aging on the skin and skin cancer.
Lecture 16: Skeletal Organization.

QUIZ 3 (Lectures 12-15).

b. Describe the organs of the skeletal system.
c. Describe the functions of the skeletal system.
d. Describe the gross features of a long bone.
e. Describe the histological features of compact bone.
f. Compare and contrast the histological features of cancellous and compact bone.
g. Define ossification.
h. Contrast intramembranous and endochondral ossification.
i. Describe the conditions necessary for normal bone growth.
Lecture 17: Skeletal Physiology, Joints, Pathology and Arthrology.
a. Compare and contrast the structure and function of tendons and ligaments; define bursa.
b. Discuss diseases of the skeletal system.
c. Define a fracture and briefly describe how bones repair themselves.
d. Define an articulation.
e. Compare and contrast the structure, kind of movement and location of fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints.
f. Describe the detailed structure of a synovial joint.
g. Describe and compare the movements of the different types of synovial joints.
h. Describe the causes and symptoms of common joint disorders that include arthritis, bursitis, tendonitis and intervertebral disc abnormalities.
Lecture 18:

MIDTERM EXAM (Lectures 1-17)

Lecture 19: Muscular Organization.
a. List the distinguishing properties of muscular tissue.
b. Compare the location, microscopic appearance, nervous control and functions of the three types of muscle tissue.
c. Identify the histological characteristics of skeletal muscle.
d. Define epimysium, perimysium, endomysium and fascia.  Explain how these bind muscle fibers into muscle organs and connect muscle to bone.
e. Describe the ultrastructure of skeletal muscle tissue including myofibrils and the sarcomere.
Lecture 20: Muscle Physiology.
a. Describe the source of energy for muscular contraction.
b. Describe the physiological importance of the motor unit.
c. Describe the physiology of contraction by listing the events associated with the sliding-filament model.
d. Define the all or none principle of muscular contraction.
e. Describe the principle of oxygen debt.
f. Describe the structure and function of the neuromuscular junction.
Lecture 21: Muscles and Body Movements.
a. Describe the relationship between bones and skeletal muscles in producing body movements.
b. Define a lever and fulcrum and compare the classes of levers on the placement of the fulcrum, effort and resistance.
c. Describe body movements as the activity of groups of muscles by their roles as prime movers, antagonists and synergists.
d. Describe the process of myography.  Define twitch, tetanus, fatigue and rigor mortis.
e. Define recruitment, isotonic and isometric contractions, atrophy and muscle tone.
f. Relate muscle insertion sites to the range of motion of the joint and muscle force.
g. Discuss hypertrophy, atrophy and proprioceptors.
Lecture 22: Myopathology.
a. Define common muscular disorders such as fatigue, fribrosis, myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy and TMJ syndrome.
b. Compare spasms, cramps, convulsions and fibrillation as abnormal muscular contractions.
Lecture 23: Blood Components and Functions.

QUIZ 4 (Lectures 19-22).

b. Contrast the general roles of blood, lymph and interstitial fluid in maintaining homeostasis.
c. Define the physical characteristics of blood (pH, viscosity, temperature and volume).
d. Identify plasma and describe its composition.
e. Describe and compare the origins of the formed elements.
f. Describe the structure of erythrocytes and how they transport O2 and CO2.
g. Define erythropoiesis and identify the factors related to erythrocyte production and destruction.
h. List the types and functions of leucocytes.
i. Describe the importance of a differential white count.
j. Discuss the role of leucocytes in phagocytosis and antibody production.
k. Discuss the structure of thrombocytes and explain their role in blood clotting.
Lecture 24: Blood Types and Clotting.
a. Describe the stages involved in blood clotting emphasizing the common pathway.
b. Identify the factors that promote and inhibit blood clotting.
c. Contrast a thrombus and an embolus.
d. Define clotting and bleeding times.
e. Define the classification of the ABO and Rh blood groups.
f. Define the agglutination reaction as the basis for ABO blood symptoms.
Lecture 25: Blood Pathology.
a. Define erythroblastosis fetalis as a harmful antigen-antibody reaction.
b. Compare the clinical symptoms of polycythemia and leukemia.
c. Contrast the causes of hemorrhagic, hemolytic, aplastic, iron deficiency, pernicious and sickle cell anemia.
d. Identify the clinical symptoms of infectious mononucleosis.
Lecture 26: Structure of the Heart and the Conduction System.
a. Contrast the structure of the epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium.
b. Identify the blood vessels, chambers and valves of the heart.
c. Describe the coronary vessels and coronary blood flow.
d. Describe the initiation and conduction of the nerve impulse through the nodal system of the heart.
Lecture 27: The Electrocardiogram and the Cell Cycle.
a. Label and explain the deflection waves of a normal electrocardiogram.
b. Describe the sounds of the heart and their clinical significance.
c. Define systole and diastole as the two principal events of the cardiac cycle.
d. Describe the pressure changes associated with blood flow through the heart.
e. Describe the events of the cardiac cycle as a function of time.
Lecture 28: Control of Cardiac Function and Cardiopathology.
a. Define and identify the factors that determine cardiac output.
b. Define Starling’s Law of the heart
c. Contrast the effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation of the heart.
d. Define the role of baroreceptors and chemoreceptors in the control of heart rate.
e. Define the role of the medulla oblongata in the control of heart rate.
f. Describe the effects of body temperature, ion concentration, sex, age, hormones and physical conditioning on heart rate.
g. Contrast coronary bypass surgery and transluminal coronary angioplasty.
h. Discuss: congenital heart defects, valve disorders, ischemic heart disease and arrhythmias.
i. Compare angina pectoris and myocardial infarction as abnormalities of coronary circulation.
Lecture 29: Circulation.
a. QUIZ 5 (Lectures 23-27).
b. Contrast the structure and functions of veins, capillaries and arteries.
c. Compare systemic, coronary, pulmonary, portal and fetal circulation.
d. Describe the importance and route of blood involved in a portal circulation.
e. Identify the major blood vessels of pulmonary circulation.
f. Contrast fetal and adult circulation.
g. Explain the change in fetal circulatory structures after the establishment of post-natal circulation.
h. Define patent ductus arteriosus and patent foramen ovale and describe their consequences.
Lecture 30: Circulatory Physiology.
a. Describe why blood flows through vessels.
b. List the factors that resist the flow of blood through vessels.
c. List the factors that assist the return of venous blood to the heart.
d. Define pulse and identify the arteries where the pulse may be felt.
e. Discuss blood velocity and exchange of materials in the capillaries.
f. Define blood pressure and discuss the hormonal regulation of blood pressure.
g. Describe the clinical method for recording systolic and diastolic pressure.
h. Contrast the clinical significance of systolic, diastolic and pulse pressures.
i. List the causes and symptoms of aneurysms, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension.
Lecture 31: Structure and Mechanisms of the Respiratory System.
a. Identify the organs of the respiratory system.
b. Describe the olfactory receptors of the nasal cavity.
c. Differentiate between the three regions of the pharynx and describe their roles in respiration.
d. Identify the anatomical features of the larynx related to respiration and vocalization.
e. Describe the structure and location of the tubes that form the bronchial tree.
f. Identify the coverings and the gross anatomical features of the lungs.
g. Describe the role of the respiratory membrane in diffusion of the respiratory gases.
Lecture 32: Physiology and Chemistry of Respiration.
a. List the sequence of pressure changes involved in respiration and expiration.
b. Compare the volumes and capacities of air exchanged in respiration.
c. Define the partial pressures of gases, surfactant and compliance.
d. Describe the mechanisms of external and internal respiration based on differences in partial pressures of O2 and CO2.
e. Describe the transport of O2 and CO2 by blood and how it is affected by temperature and pH.
Lectures 33: Regulation of Respiration and Respiratory Disorders.
a. Describe the parts of the nervous system that control respiration.
b. Compare and contrast the roles of the Hering-Breuer reflex and the pneumotaxic center in controlling respiration.
c. Describe the effects of chemical stimuli and blood pressure in determining respiration rate.
d. Define bronchial asthma, emphysema, pneumonia, bronchitis, tuberculosis and COPD.
Lecture 34: The Lymphatic System.
a. QUIZ 6 (Lectures 28-33)
b. Identify the structures and functions of the lymphatic system.
c. Compare the location, composition and functions of interstitial fluid and lymph.
d. List the forces responsible for the circulation of lymph.
e. Discuss the spleen and thymus as lymph organs.
f. Identify the clinically important groups of lymph nodes and nodules.
g. Describe the structure and function of lymph nodes.
h. Compare and contrast lymphatic vessels with blood vessels
Lecture 35: Immunity (Part I).
a. Identify the kinds of specific and nonspecific defenses against infection.
b. Relate the physiological changes and clinical symptoms associated with inflammation.
c. Describe the process of phagocytosis.
d. Contrast B and T lymphocytes with respect to life cycle and function. Identify other cells that function in immune responses such as macrophages and antigen-presenting cells (APCs).
e. Define immunity and discuss how the body recognizes its own cells from foreign matter.
f. Describe the mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity and the development of memory cells.
Lecture 36: The Immune System (Part II).
a. Contrast and provide examples of active and passive immunity.
b. Describe how and why a vaccination works.
c. Describe using examples the immunological basis of autoimmune diseases and the possible cause for the disorders
d. Explain the allergies, autoimmune diseases and systemic anaphylaxis.
e. Define and describe the terms antigen and antibody; discuss antibody-mediated immunity.
f. Describe the function of antibodies in an antigen-antibody reaction (e.g. complement fixation).
g Explain the diversity of antibodies.
h. Define the roles of helper T cells and its significance in AIDS.